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A Memory Strategies Focus Report

Memory Technology for the Internet of Things (IOT), March 2015
Low Power, Low Cost, & Flexible: FeRAM, SONOS, ReRAM, MRAM

The Internet of Things is a term used for smart networks of processing systems communicating with each other. These networks are expected to improve smart automation in many fields including: wearable medical devices, smart RFID tags, ultra-low power instant-on MCUs, energy-harvesting devices and neural networks which have the potential of very high powered parallel computers. These systems must be very low power and very low cost and, if they are to be worn, must be flexible.

Both ferroelectic capacitors and spintronics devices have been used to back up logic gates such as flipflops and produce MCU that retain their logic state on power-down. The FeRAM has been used in very low power systems for some time due to its fast switching speed, low active power and non-volatility. The lack of scalability of the 1T1C FeRAM and its incompatibility in the wafer fab have limited its use in this application due to the high cost technology.  A new innovation for FeRAMs is deep trench capacitors.

Single transistor FeFETs have been explored for low cost system on glass applications. Development of HfO2-based FeFETS has the promise of wafer fab compatibility but endurance has been limited due to parasitic charge trapping. This technology is being intensively studied. NAND-like strings of organic FeFET arrays have been studied for use on flexible substrates to lower cost. The effects of domain walls in ferroelectric devices are being studied. Various organic processes for making low cost circuits have been tried. FeFETs have been made using nanoimprinting using an organic sheet-to-sheet process at ambient temperature. Low cost inkjet printers have been used to make rewritable memory for RFID tags. Co-polymer ferroelectric memories have been used as low cost flexible transparent memory with low power operation and mechanical flexibility.

Resistance RAM (ReRAM) can be made with low cost materials such as polymer blends and with simplified manufacturing procedures. Room temperature inorganic filament switching ReRAMs showed good stability compared to organic ReRAM. A flexible polymer ReRAM based on Parylene-C has low voltage switching and ON/OFF current ratio greater than 107 at 0.01V read. A Ag/polystyrene/Ag based conductive bridge RRAM was made. Several IGZO ReRAMs have been investigated with high ON/OFF current ratios and low read voltage. Polymer charge trapping memories have also been made. Ferroelectric tunnel junctions show endurance up to 106 cycles and are being studied further. Ferroelectric nanowires are being studied for miniaturized low power circuits.

100+ pages.

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Memory Technology for the Internet of Things (IOT), March 2015
(Low Power, Low Cost, & Flexible - FeRAM, SONOS, ReRAM, MRAM),

Table of Contents

1.0 Overview of Memory For IOT Applications

2.0 Memory Applications for the Internet of Things

3.0 Conventional 1T1R/2T2R FeRAM Characteristics, Development, Reliability and Test

4.0 Various System Circuits Using Low Power Non-Volatile Memory

5.0 Single Transistor Ferroelectric Memories MFIS, FeFET

6.0 FeFET Memories Using HfO as a Ferroelectric Material

7.0 Ferroelectric NAND NV Memory and Domain Wall Research

8.0 Ferroelectric Domain Wall Motion Research

9.0 Plastic Organic Ferroelectric Memory Circuit Fabrication

10.0 Development and Characteristics of Copolymer Ferroelectric Memories

11 Resistance RAM (ReRAM) Memories using Flexible Plastic, Polymer

12. Charge Trapping Memory Using Plastic and Polymer Both Transparent and Flexible

13.0 Ferroelectric Tunnel Junctions

14.0 Low Power and Plastic Memory Materials Research


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